Fire salamander (salamandra) are from the caudata order. Their body is about 30cm in length, they are slow, the tail is round and relatively short. There are three kinds of fire salamaner throughout Europe. They live in wet and shady places, holes of small animals, hollows, cracks of rocks, under the leaf covers in the forests. The female gives birth to about 70 larvae with external gills. The fire salamander feeds on insects, slugs, worms, etc. In Bulgaria only one kind is known – the S. maculosa. It is seen mainly in wet and shady forests. Its body Continue reading “Salamander”
Birch (Betula) – deciduous trees and shrubs of the genus Betula. There are more than 100 species found mainly in East Asia and North America. In Europe there are four species of birch and the most widespread of them is the Common Birch (Betula Alba), also called White Birch. It reaches up to 25, rarely 30, meters in height and is usually found in the mountains, mostly in coniferous forests around clearings, always in limited numbers and among stands of other types of trees. The birch has a good potential to be used as a building material and for industrial purposes but only in the areas where it is found in large quantities. Its wood has no core, it’s moderately heavy, tough and Continue reading “Birch”
The Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia Decaocto) – is a bird from the Dove order. Its plumage is darker on top and lighter grey up front. Around the neck it has a ring of black plumage. The Collard Dove is widespread in the southern areas of Asia, on the Balkans, and in the last 50 years it quickly spread north and west. It is usually found in populated areas or near them, inhabiting gardens, parks, and yards. The female lays two white eggs 3 to 6 times a year. The doves eat seeds, greens, insects and food waste.
Population. In anthropological terms the majority of Europe’s population falls into different types of Caucasian race. Just in a few European regions there are populations of Asian origins. In ethnic and linguistic terms most of Europe’s population speaks Indo-European languages distributed mainly in three large family groups: Slavic, Germanic and Romanic. Slavic peoples inhabit Central and Southeast Europe and are divided three groups. Germanic peoples live in Central and Northern Europe and the British Isles They are divided into two groups. Romanic peoples inhabit the South and Southeastern Europe and are divided into two groups. The Indo-European language speaking peoples also include the Baltic nations along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, the Celtic peoples of the United Kingdom, Ireland and Continue reading “Population”
Vegetation in Europe was completely formed after the quaternary glaciations. Throughout human history vegetation underwent major changes caused by human activity. In many areas crops largely replaced wild vegetation. Many crops originated in Europe. The islands in the Arctic Ocean belong to the Arctic Wasteland Zone and are devoid of trees and shrubs. Lichens and mosses predominate there. The Tundra zone covers the northernmost parts of the Russian plain, the Kola Peninsula and the Scandinavian Peninsula as well as coastal Iceland. There prevail shrubs, mosses, lichens and Continue reading “Vegetation”
The distribution of soil types in Europe is linked to the latitude, but the zoning is often modified by climatic and topographical features. The tundra soil type is most common in Eastern Europe and in Iceland. The mountainosu tundra soils are typical for Scandinavia. Much more widespread in Europe are the podsolic soils, which are common in Northern Britain, Scandinavia, Finland, Poland, Northern Germany, Denmark and the northern part of Russia. In Central Europe the podsolic soils are replaced by brown soils (distributed from Britain to the eastern slopes of the Carpathian maountains, and in the mountains Continue reading “Soils”
From Northern Europe’s mountainous region to the south rolls a large strip of valleys, hills and spacious depressions covered in part by shallow bodies of water (The English Channel, North and Baltic seas). It is situated on the territory of Northern France, Southeast England, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, the northern parts of Germany, a large party of Poland, Southern Sweden and the Russian flatlands. To the south there is a range of medium high mountain ridges and crests typical for Central Europe. The most prominent of them are The Central French massif (1886 metres at its highest point), the Bohemian massif (1456 metres at its highest point) and a large part of the British Isles. Farther down to the south Continue reading “Geography II”
Europe’s relief varies enormously. 17 % of its territory is covered by mountains (1,5 % of which are more than 2000 meters high) and that is why the average altitude of the continent is rather low – about 300 meters. There are a number of regularities in the distribution of the larger relief forms – the mountains are followed by hills, planes and valleys and the major orographic zones are running mostly from the southwest to the northeast. The mountain ridges are of various geological ages. In the north of Europe are the Scandinavian mountains (height up to 2568 m), which make a gigantic dome rolling steeply to the Atlantic Ocean. Numerous deep valleys and fjords segment their western part. The Baltic and the Southern Continue reading “Geography I”
Europe’s coastline (38 000 kilometers long) is very segmented especially in the west and in the south. The islands and peninsulas comprise more than one third (34,6%) of Europe’s land. The largest islands are situated along the western coastline of the continent: Great Britain, Iceland, Ireland; in the south – the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, and to the north – Novaya Zemlya, Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard. To the north the largest peninsulas are the Scandinavian Peninsula and the Kola Peninsula, and to the south – the Iberian Peninsula, the Apennine Peninsula, the Balkan and the Crimean peninsulas. Europe’s shores are of various geological kinds.