Bustards are from the Otididae family. Their body is slow and big. Some of them weigh more than 20kg. The legs are long, without rear finger. They don’t have rump gland and the feathers are wet easily. There are more than 23 kinds of bustards, spread throughout Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. They are mostly found on open steppes and half-steppes regions. They live alone or in groups and during the mating season – in pairs. They hatch 2 eggs and the newborns are ready for independent living. They feed with seeds, grass, invertebrates and small mammals. In Bulgaria there are 2 known kinds which are mainly focused in Dobrudzha. The Grand Bustard Continue reading “Bustards”
Vegetation in Europe was completely formed after the quaternary glaciations. Throughout human history vegetation underwent major changes caused by human activity. In many areas crops largely replaced wild vegetation. Many crops originated in Europe. The islands in the Arctic Ocean belong to the Arctic Wasteland Zone and are devoid of trees and shrubs. Lichens and mosses predominate there. The Tundra zone covers the northernmost parts of the Russian plain, the Kola Peninsula and the Scandinavian Peninsula as well as coastal Iceland. There prevail shrubs, mosses, lichens and Continue reading “Vegetation”
The distribution of soil types in Europe is linked to the latitude, but the zoning is often modified by climatic and topographical features. The tundra soil type is most common in Eastern Europe and in Iceland. The mountainosu tundra soils are typical for Scandinavia. Much more widespread in Europe are the podsolic soils, which are common in Northern Britain, Scandinavia, Finland, Poland, Northern Germany, Denmark and the northern part of Russia. In Central Europe the podsolic soils are replaced by brown soils (distributed from Britain to the eastern slopes of the Carpathian maountains, and in the mountains Continue reading “Soils”
Europe has a well developed network of rivers. The largest rivers on the continent are situated in the Russian planes. The largest river in Europe is Volga Kama and its tributaries Oka. Other major rivers are the Don, Dnieper, Dniester. The rivers Pechora and Northern Dvina flow into the Arctic Ocean and the rivers Neman, Neva, Vistula, Odra (Oder), Elba (Laban) and others flow into the Atlantic Ocean. The rivers in Fennoscandia and on the Kola Peninsula are short, torrential with many rapids and waterfalls (Glomma, Tura, etc.). The largest rivers in Western Europe are the Danube, Rhine, Seine, Thames, Loire, Garonne, Rhone and others. All these rivers are deep and with high waters almost all year round. Rivers in Southern Europe are more shallow and in the summer the water levels go down. Some of these are the rivers Continue reading “Hydrography”
Europe’s coastline (38 000 kilometers long) is very segmented especially in the west and in the south. The islands and peninsulas comprise more than one third (34,6%) of Europe’s land. The largest islands are situated along the western coastline of the continent: Great Britain, Iceland, Ireland; in the south – the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, and to the north – Novaya Zemlya, Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard. To the north the largest peninsulas are the Scandinavian Peninsula and the Kola Peninsula, and to the south – the Iberian Peninsula, the Apennine Peninsula, the Balkan and the Crimean peninsulas. Europe’s shores are of various geological kinds.