Birch

Birch (Betula)Birch (Betula) – deciduous trees and shrubs of the genus Betula. There are more than 100 species found mainly in East Asia and North America. In Europe there are four species of birch and the most widespread of them is the Common Birch (Betula Alba), also called White Birch. It reaches up to 25, rarely 30, meters in height and is usually found in the mountains, mostly in coniferous forests around clearings, always in limited numbers and among stands of other types of trees. The birch has a good potential to be used as a building material and for industrial purposes but only in the areas where it is found in large quantities. Its wood has no core, it’s moderately heavy, tough and Continue reading “Birch”

Beech

BeechThe Beech-tree (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the Beech family. There are nine spieces of it distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The European beech or Common beech (Fagus sylvatica) reaches up to 30-40 meters in height and is found in Europe. It grows in almost all at an altitude between 700 and 1800-2000 meters, in extensive beech only stands or among conifers, oaks and other trees. The beech has three ecotypes: foothill beech, mountain beech and alpine beech. The Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) reaches more than 30 meters in height and is found in Southeast Continue reading “Beech”

Rabbit

RabbitThe rabbits are mammals from the Rodent order. They are distinguished by their long ears and long hind legs, but have very short tails. On the upper jaw they have two pairs of incisors and one pair on the lower jaw. The body is covered in soft fur. There are 10 documented genera of rabbits, distributed almost throughout the entire dry land surface of the planet. In Australia and on some islands the rabbits were brought by humans (the European rabbit for example). Rabbits have various habitats and are herbivores – they eat grass, leaves and tree bark. Rabbits are very fertile. Every year they produce several litters of 7-8 or more bunnies. The domesticated rabbits descend from the European or Common rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which Continue reading “Rabbit”

Population

Europe’s populationPopulation. In anthropological terms the majority of Europe’s population falls into different types of Caucasian race. Just in a few European regions there are populations of Asian origins. In ethnic and linguistic terms most of Europe’s population speaks Indo-European languages distributed mainly in three large family groups: Slavic, Germanic and Romanic. Slavic peoples inhabit Central and Southeast Europe and are divided three groups. Germanic peoples live in Central and Northern Europe and the British Isles They are divided into two groups. Romanic peoples inhabit the South and Southeastern Europe and are divided into two groups. The Indo-European language speaking peoples also include the Baltic nations ­along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, the Celtic peoples of the United Kingdom, Ireland and Continue reading “Population”

Soils

SoilsThe distribution of soil types in Europe is linked to the latitude, but the zoning is often modified by climatic and topographical features. The tundra soil type is most common in Eastern Europe and in Iceland. The mountainosu tundra soils are typical for Scandinavia. Much more widespread in Europe are the podsolic soils, which are common in Northern Britain, Scandinavia, Finland, Poland, Northern Germany, Denmark and the northern part of Russia. In Central Europe the podsolic soils are replaced by brown soils (distributed from Britain to the eastern slopes of the Carpathian maountains, and in the mountains Continue reading “Soils”

Hydrography

River VolgaEurope has a well developed network of rivers. The largest rivers on the continent are situated in the Russian planes. The largest river in Europe is Volga Kama and its tributaries Oka. Other major rivers are the Don, Dnieper, Dniester. The rivers Pechora and Northern Dvina flow into the Arctic Ocean and the rivers Neman, Neva, Vistula, Odra (Oder), Elba (Laban) and others flow into the Atlantic Ocean. The rivers in Fennoscandia and on the Kola Peninsula are short, torrential with many rapids and waterfalls (Glomma, Tura, etc.). The largest rivers in Western Europe are the Danube, Rhine, Seine, Thames, Loire, Garonne, Rhone and others. All these rivers are deep and with high waters almost all year round. Rivers in Southern Europe are more shallow and in the summer the water levels go down. Some of these are the rivers Continue reading “Hydrography”

Geography I

Europe’s reliefEurope’s relief varies enormously. 17 % of its territory is covered by mountains (1,5 % of which are more than 2000 meters high) and that is why the average altitude of the continent is rather low – about 300 meters. There are a number of regularities in the distribution of the larger relief forms – the mountains are followed by hills, planes and valleys and the major orographic zones are running mostly from the southwest to the northeast. The mountain ridges are of various geological ages. In the north of Europe are the Scandinavian mountains (height up to 2568 m), which make a gigantic dome rolling steeply to the Atlantic Ocean. Numerous deep valleys and fjords segment their western part. The Baltic and the Southern Continue reading “Geography I”