The rabbits are mammals from the Rodent order. They are distinguished by their long ears and long hind legs, but have very short tails. On the upper jaw they have two pairs of incisors and one pair on the lower jaw. The body is covered in soft fur. There are 10 documented genera of rabbits, distributed almost throughout the entire dry land surface of the planet. In Australia and on some islands the rabbits were brought by humans (the European rabbit for example). Rabbits have various habitats and are herbivores – they eat grass, leaves and tree bark. Rabbits are very fertile. Every year they produce several litters of 7-8 or more bunnies. The domesticated rabbits descend from the European or Common rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which Continue reading “Rabbit”
The distribution of soil types in Europe is linked to the latitude, but the zoning is often modified by climatic and topographical features. The tundra soil type is most common in Eastern Europe and in Iceland. The mountainosu tundra soils are typical for Scandinavia. Much more widespread in Europe are the podsolic soils, which are common in Northern Britain, Scandinavia, Finland, Poland, Northern Germany, Denmark and the northern part of Russia. In Central Europe the podsolic soils are replaced by brown soils (distributed from Britain to the eastern slopes of the Carpathian maountains, and in the mountains Continue reading “Soils”
Most of Europe lies in the temperate latitudes and only its most southern and northern parts are in the subtropics or north of the Arctic Circle. The influence of the Atlantic is enhanced by the warm Gulf Stream current and the very segmented European coastline. Of great importance is the location of the mountain ranges, which do not hinder the movement of air currents from the west to the east. Cyclonic activity is lower in summertime (the average rate during the warmest month is 28° in the south and 3° in the north), and in winter it increases (the average rate. During the coldest month is respectively 12° and 20°). In most of Europe there is enough rainfall but it is unevenly distributed. While rainfall in Western Europe is in surplus (in Scandinavia and Britain it is more than 2000 mm), in Eastern Europe it is insufficient (for example in the Caspian Sea Valley the rainfall is 100-500 mm). In Europe the temperatures are mostly temperate. The western regions are characterized by moderate coastal climate (with small annual temperature variations, mild winters and relatively warm summers) and the eastern regions are characterized by moderate continental climate (with significant variations in the average annual temperatures, cold winters, warm, and in some places very hot summers). The subtropical zone of Europe has Mediterranean climate (hot dry summers and mild wet winters).
From Northern Europe’s mountainous region to the south rolls a large strip of valleys, hills and spacious depressions covered in part by shallow bodies of water (The English Channel, North and Baltic seas). It is situated on the territory of Northern France, Southeast England, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, the northern parts of Germany, a large party of Poland, Southern Sweden and the Russian flatlands. To the south there is a range of medium high mountain ridges and crests typical for Central Europe. The most prominent of them are The Central French massif (1886 metres at its highest point), the Bohemian massif (1456 metres at its highest point) and a large part of the British Isles. Farther down to the south Continue reading “Geography II”
Europe’s relief varies enormously. 17 % of its territory is covered by mountains (1,5 % of which are more than 2000 meters high) and that is why the average altitude of the continent is rather low – about 300 meters. There are a number of regularities in the distribution of the larger relief forms – the mountains are followed by hills, planes and valleys and the major orographic zones are running mostly from the southwest to the northeast. The mountain ridges are of various geological ages. In the north of Europe are the Scandinavian mountains (height up to 2568 m), which make a gigantic dome rolling steeply to the Atlantic Ocean. Numerous deep valleys and fjords segment their western part. The Baltic and the Southern Continue reading “Geography I”
Europe’s coastline (38 000 kilometers long) is very segmented especially in the west and in the south. The islands and peninsulas comprise more than one third (34,6%) of Europe’s land. The largest islands are situated along the western coastline of the continent: Great Britain, Iceland, Ireland; in the south – the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, and to the north – Novaya Zemlya, Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard. To the north the largest peninsulas are the Scandinavian Peninsula and the Kola Peninsula, and to the south – the Iberian Peninsula, the Apennine Peninsula, the Balkan and the Crimean peninsulas. Europe’s shores are of various geological kinds.