Geography II

VesuviusFrom Northern Europe’s mountainous region to the south rolls a large strip of valleys, hills and spacious depressions covered in part by shallow bodies of water (The English Channel, North and Baltic seas). It is situated on the territory of Northern France, Southeast England, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, the northern parts of Germany, a large party of Poland, Southern Sweden and the Russian flatlands. To the south there is a range of medium high mountain ridges and crests typical for Central Europe. The most prominent of them are The Central French massif (1886 metres at its highest point), the Bohemian massif (1456 metres at its highest point) and a large part of the British Isles. Farther down to the south is situated the Tertiary orogenic belt. The highest mountains there are the Alps (more than 4807 metres high), which spread form the Mediterranean Sea to the Danube valley. The tectonic extension of the Alps to the east are the Carpathian mountains (up to 2663 metres high) and Stara planina (up to 2376 metres high). Other extensions of the Alps to the southeast are the Dinaric Alps (up to 2522 metres high) and to the southwest – the Apennines (up to 2914 metres high). In the foot of the Alps and the Carpathian mountains there are vast valleys such as the Po valley, the Pannonian Basin and the Lower Danube valley. The geography of the Pyrenean, the Apennine and the Balcan peninsulas was mostly formed during the Tertiary and the valleys and the flatlands take up a relatively small part of the region (the Danube valley, the Andalucian Valley). Typical for South Europe are the karst formations and the high volcanic activity (Mount Vesuvius, Mount Etna, Santorini, etc.) The volcanic and seismic activity is a proof that South Europe is a territory of recent tectonic movement.

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